Association and clinical utility of NAT2 in the prediction of isoniazid-induced liver injury in Singaporean patients

TitleAssociation and clinical utility of NAT2 in the prediction of isoniazid-induced liver injury in Singaporean patients
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsChan, SL, Chua, APG, Aminkeng, F, Chee, CBE, Jin, S, Loh, M, Gan, SH, Wang, YT, Brunham, LR
JournalPLoS One
Volume12
Issue10
Paginatione0186200
Date Published10/2017
Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Isoniazid (INH) is part of the first-line-therapy for tuberculosis (TB) but can cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Several candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been previously identified but the clinical utility of these SNPs in the prediction of INH-DILI remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between selected candidate SNPs and the risk of INH-DILI and to assess the clinical validity of associated variants in a Singaporean population.

METHODS:

This was a case-control study where 24 INH-DILI cases and 79 controls were recruited from the TB control unit in a tertiary hospital. Logistic regression was used to test for the association between candidate SNPs and INH-DILI. NAT2 acetylator status was inferred from genotypes and tested for association with INH-DILI. Finally, clinical validity measures were estimated for significant variants.

RESULTS:

Two SNPs in NAT2 (rs1041983 and rs1495741) and NAT2 slow acetylators (SA) were significantly associated with INH-DILI (OR (95% CI) = 13.86 (4.30-44.70), 0.10 (0.03-0.33) and 9.98 (3.32-33.80), respectively). Based on an INH-DILI prevalence of 10%, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of NAT2 SA were 75%, 78%, 28% and 97%, respectively. The population attributable fraction (PAF) and number needed to test (NNT) for NAT2 SA were estimated to be 0.67 and 4.08, respectively. A model with clinical and NAT2 acetylator status provided significantly better prediction for INH-DILI than a clinical model alone (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.863 vs. 0.766, respectively, p = 0.027).

CONCLUSIONS:

We show the association between NAT2 SA and INH-DILI in a Singaporean population and demonstrated its clinical utility in the prediction of INH-DILI.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0186200